Addiction Recovery

Addiction recovery is a multifaceted process that demands a comprehensive and compassionate approach to address the complex needs of individuals grappling with substance abuse disorders. 

As a chronic yet treatable condition, addiction necessitates implementing evidence-based strategies, such as pharmacological interventions and behavioral therapies, tailored to the unique patterns of drug use and associated challenges each patient faces.

Recognizing that relapse may be an inevitable part of the recovery journey, the overarching goal of addiction treatment is to manage and mitigate the condition rather than pursue an elusive cure. 

This article delves into the principles underpinning effective treatment, the medications and devices available to support recovery, the role of behavioral therapies, and the holistic approach embodied by the most successful treatment programs in empowering patients to reclaim their lives and foster a sense of belonging.

The enduring commitment to research and innovation in addiction recovery has culminated in a wealth of knowledge and experience that informs the design and delivery of treatment programs. 

Central to this endeavor is the understanding that addiction transcends mere physiological dependence and encompasses various psychological, social, and environmental factors that must be addressed to facilitate sustainable recovery.

In exploring the intricacies of addiction recovery, this article seeks to equip readers with a comprehensive understanding of the available resources and strategies, fostering a sense of belonging and empowerment in the collective pursuit of recovery from substance abuse disorders.


The journey towards overcoming substance dependency encompasses a comprehensive approach to treatment, addressing the multifaceted challenges associated with addiction and facilitating a healthier, more fulfilling life.

Addiction recovery is a dynamic process that involves not only the cessation of substance abuse but also the enhancement of mental health, the cultivation of solid support systems, and the implementation of effective relapse prevention strategies. 

A combination of evidence-based addiction treatment modalities, such as pharmacotherapy and behavioral therapy, is often employed to address the specific needs of individuals and help them regain control over their lives.

Mental health plays a crucial role in the recovery process, as individuals with addiction often suffer from co-occurring mental health disorders that can exacerbate substance abuse and impede progress toward sobriety. 

Comprehensive addiction treatment considers these comorbidities and incorporates appropriate interventions to address the addiction and the underlying mental health issues.

Behavioral therapy, in particular, is effective in helping individuals modify their attitudes and behaviors related to drug use, thereby enabling them to cope with stressful situations and triggers that might lead to relapse.

In addition to professional treatment, support from family members, friends, and peers in recovery is invaluable in fostering a sense of belonging and promoting long-term recovery. 

This support may come through participation in mutual aid groups, such as 12-step programs, or through more informal networks of encouragement and understanding.

By engaging with others who share similar experiences, individuals can gain insights and tools to help them navigate the challenges of addiction recovery and maintain their sobriety.

The recovery process is an ongoing journey that requires continued effort and vigilance to prevent relapse and sustain a healthier, more empowered life. 

By embracing a multifaceted approach to treatment that addresses the complex interplay of substance abuse, mental health, and social support, individuals can maximize their chances of achieving lasting recovery and rediscovering their full potential.

What Does The Department Do?

Addressing various aspects of a patient’s life, the department offers comprehensive services tailored to the individual’s specific medical, mental, social, occupational, family, and legal needs. 

Recognizing that addiction recovery is a multifaceted process, the department prioritizes a holistic approach to help individuals regain control of their lives and achieve lasting sobriety.

With a team of experienced professionals, the department provides the necessary resources and support to ensure that patients can successfully navigate the challenges of recovery and build a solid foundation for a healthier future.

  1. Medical and mental health services: In the initial stages of recovery, patients may require medical intervention to address withdrawal symptoms and co-occurring mental health disorders. The department’s healthcare professionals work closely with patients to create a customized treatment plan, including medication management, counseling, and therapy to address the root causes of their substance use.
  2. Social and occupational support: Rebuilding social connections and finding meaningful employment are critical to recovery. The department offers resources such as life skills training, vocational counseling, and support groups to help individuals reintegrate into society and build a strong support network.
  3. Legal and family assistance: Navigating legal issues and repairing damaged relationships with family members can be overwhelming during recovery. The department provides legal guidance, family therapy, and mediation services to help patients address these challenges and foster a supportive environment for their ongoing sobriety.


Throughout the addiction recovery journey, the department’s compassionate and knowledgeable staff are dedicated to empowering patients to take charge of their lives and make positive changes. 

The department aims to equip individuals with the tools they need to maintain long-term sobriety, prevent relapse, and ultimately lead fulfilling, healthy lives by providing comprehensive services and resources.

The department’s unwavering commitment to helping patients overcome substance use disorders fosters a sense of belonging and reassurance, ensuring that no one has to face the challenges of addiction recovery alone.

How We Help Our Patients

In addressing addiction recovery, the initial step involves accurate diagnosis and assessment of the individual’s condition, followed by a tailored treatment plan.

Upon receiving a treatment request, our team of professionals prioritizes patient care and support throughout the recovery process.

This comprehensive approach ensures that individuals receive the necessary medical, mental, social, and emotional assistance to overcome addiction and regain control of their lives.


Identifying and diagnosing substance use disorders is a critical step toward initiating appropriate treatment and support for individuals on their journey toward improved health and well-being. 

Accurate diagnosis involves a comprehensive assessment of an individual’s addiction history and their mental health, social, occupational, and family situations.

Mental health services play an essential role in this process, as professionals are trained to recognize the signs and symptoms of various substance abuse disorders, such as drug addiction and alcohol abuse. 

In addition to identifying the specific type of substance being abused, it is crucial to determine the severity of the disorder, which can range from mild to severe, to design an effective treatment plan that addresses each individual’s unique needs.

Diagnosing addiction is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of the various factors contributing to developing addictive behaviors. 

This includes recognizing the biological, psychological, and environmental factors that may predispose an individual to substance abuse.

A comprehensive evaluation conducted by mental health professionals can help to identify underlying mental health issues, such as depression or anxiety, which may be contributing to the individual’s substance use. 

By addressing these co-occurring conditions, mental health services can provide a more holistic approach to recovery, ensuring that individuals receive the necessary support to overcome their addiction and achieve lasting change.

In this way, a compassionate, knowledgeable, and experienced approach to diagnosis serves as the foundation for successful addiction recovery.

Treatment Request

Effective treatment strategies for substance use disorders encompass a multifaceted approach that addresses the individual’s medical, psychological, and social needs and supports their occupational and family life. 

Such an approach requires a comprehensive, compassionate, knowledgeable, and experienced treatment plan, with the ultimate goal of helping individuals achieve addiction recovery and maintain a sober lifestyle.

This plan should include evidence-based therapies, addiction medicine, and recovery support services to foster resilience and facilitate long-term success in overcoming drug abuse.

  1. Behavioral therapies, which may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, contingency management, and family therapy, aim to modify attitudes and behaviors related to drug use and help individuals develop coping strategies for dealing with triggers and stressors.
  2. Addiction medicine: Medications such as methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone can aid in treating opioid addiction, while other medications may be used for treating alcohol and nicotine dependencies. These medications can help manage withdrawal symptoms, reduce cravings, and prevent relapse.
  3. Recovery support services: These services provide ongoing assistance to individuals in addiction recovery, offering resources and support for maintaining sobriety, improving family and social relationships, and addressing occupational and legal issues.


By considering the unique needs of each individual and utilizing a combination of behavioral therapies, addiction medicine, and recovery support services, a treatment request can be tailored to effectively address the complexities of drug abuse and promote long-term success in rehab and beyond.

Through this comprehensive approach, individuals can develop the necessary skills and resilience to overcome addiction and lead fulfilling, sober lives.

Patient Care & Support

Comprehensive patient care and support play a crucial role in addressing the multifaceted needs of individuals struggling with substance use disorders, ultimately fostering resilience and long-term success in overcoming drug abuse.

A well-rounded approach to addiction recovery should encompass a range of services catering to a patient’s life’s medical, psychological, social, and emotional aspects. 

This includes providing access to individual and group therapy, medical interventions, and support from peers and loved ones to bolster a sense of belonging and reinforce the motivation for behavioral change.

Family involvement is critical to patient care, as it can help strengthen the support network essential for lasting recovery. 

Encouraging family members to participate in meetings, counseling sessions, and educational programs can enhance their understanding of the challenges faced by their loved ones and equip them with the tools to offer meaningful assistance during the rehab process.

Furthermore, recovery support groups and 12-step meetings provide a platform for individuals in drug addiction treatment to connect with others who share similar experiences, fostering a sense of camaraderie and mutual encouragement.

By addressing the comprehensive needs of those in recovery, patient care and support services can play an invaluable role in helping individuals navigate the challenges of addiction and achieve lasting success in their journey toward a healthier, substance-free life.

When To See A Doctor

Recognizing the appropriate time to consult a medical professional is crucial in addressing substance use disorders and initiating the necessary treatment process.

Many individuals struggling with addiction may not realize the extent of their problem or may be hesitant to seek help due to stigma or fear of judgment.

However, early intervention can significantly improve the chances of successful addiction recovery.

Some warning signs that it may be time to consult a doctor include an inability to stop or control drug or alcohol abuse, experiencing withdrawal symptoms, neglecting responsibilities, and deteriorating physical or mental health.

A visit to a doctor can provide valuable guidance and support in the addiction recovery journey.

Medical professionals are equipped with the knowledge and experience to assess the severity of an individual’s drug or alcohol abuse and recommend appropriate treatment options.

These may include detoxification, medication-assisted treatment, behavioral therapy, or referral to a specialized drug clinic or rehabilitation center.

It is essential to trust the expertise of healthcare providers in developing a personalized treatment plan that addresses each patient’s unique needs and challenges.

In addition to addressing the physical aspects of addiction, it is essential to consider the psychological resilience necessary for lasting wellness.

Medical professionals can help identify and address various triggers contributing to an individual’s substance use and relapse risk.

This can involve exploring underlying mental health issues, addressing past traumas, and developing healthy coping strategies.

By addressing these factors, individuals can build a solid foundation for sustained recovery and improved overall well-being.

Addiction recovery is a lifelong process that requires ongoing support and commitment from the individual and their support network.

Seeking help from a doctor is a vital first step in acknowledging the problem and taking the necessary steps toward a healthier, substance-free life.

By addressing the physical, mental, and emotional aspects of addiction, individuals can work toward building a more resilient and fulfilling future free from the harmful effects of addictive substances.


Thorough assessments are crucial in determining the most appropriate course of action, ensuring that individuals struggling with substance use disorders receive the necessary support and treatment tailored to their unique situation. 

In addiction recovery, assessments involve gathering information about an individual’s substance abuse history, physical and mental health, social support system, and readiness for behavior change. 

These assessments help clinicians and treatment providers identify the severity of the addiction, potential barriers to recovery, and any co-occurring disorders that may need to be addressed.

In the early stages of addiction recovery, assessments can provide valuable insights into the most effective approaches for promoting long-term remission and minimizing the negative consequences of substance use. 

Different assessment tools and methodologies can be employed, such as questionnaires, interviews, and biological testing, to understand an individual’s addiction and related issues comprehensively. 

Assessments also help determine the appropriate level of care and intervention, ranging from outpatient counseling and support groups to intensive inpatient treatment programs.

Throughout the addiction recovery process, ongoing assessments are essential for monitoring progress and adjusting treatment plans. 

Regular evaluations can reveal changes in an individual’s motivation, coping skills, and risk factors for relapse, allowing treatment providers to make data-driven decisions and implement evidence-based interventions to support long-term recovery. 

One such evidence-based approach is the SMART Recovery program, which emphasizes self-empowerment, mutual support, and the development of practical skills for managing addictive substances and behaviors at different stages of recovery.

Assessments are an integral component of addiction recovery, serving as the foundation for providing personalized, effective treatment that addresses the multifaceted nature of substance use disorders. 

By continuously assessing and monitoring an individual’s progress, treatment providers can adapt their approach to meet the ever-changing needs of those in recovery. 

Ultimately, the goal is to empower individuals with the skills, knowledge, and support necessary to overcome addiction and achieve lasting change.


Consultations in addiction recovery are crucial in providing a comprehensive evaluation and accurate diagnosis of an individual’s substance use disorder. 

This process allows professionals to assess the patient’s needs and develop a tailored treatment plan that addresses the complex nature of addiction.

A compassionate and knowledgeable approach during consultations ensures that individuals receive personalized care and support throughout their recovery.


A comprehensive assessment of an individual’s unique circumstances is crucial in determining the most effective treatment plan for overcoming substance use disorders and facilitating a successful reintegration into daily life.

This evaluation thoroughly examines the individual’s history of substance abuse, the impact of addiction on their brain and cognitive functioning, readiness for change, and any underlying mental health conditions or co-occurring disorders.

By delving into these aspects, professionals can tailor the addiction recovery process to address each person’s specific needs and challenges, thereby increasing the likelihood of long-term success in maintaining sobriety.

During the evaluation phase, various assessment tools and techniques are employed to gather essential information about the individual’s addictive behaviors, the severity of their substance use, and the factors contributing to their cravings and relapses.

Furthermore, this phase also aims to identify the individual’s strengths, coping skills, and support systems that can be harnessed to facilitate recovery.

By developing a comprehensive understanding of the person’s unique circumstances, professionals can devise a step-by-step treatment plan encompassing evidence-based interventions, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication-assisted treatment, and peer support groups, to help individuals overcome their addictions and regain control over their lives.

A thorough evaluation forms the foundation for a holistic and customized approach to addiction recovery, ultimately empowering individuals to rebuild their lives and foster lasting change.


Establishing an accurate diagnosis is a critical step in the addiction treatment process, as it enables professionals to identify the specific substance use disorder and any co-occurring conditions, thereby guiding the development of an appropriate and effective treatment plan.

A comprehensive diagnostic assessment considers various factors contributing to addiction, including drug use history, mental health status, and socio-environmental influences. 

This holistic approach is crucial in understanding the complex nature of addiction and tailoring a suitable treatment plan for each individual’s unique needs.

  • Identifying the addictive substances: Determining which drugs a person has been abusing is vital to address the specific effects and withdrawal symptoms associated with each sense.
  • Assessing mental health: Evaluating a person’s mental health can reveal underlying issues that may have contributed to their addiction and identify any co-occurring mental health disorders that require simultaneous treatment.
  • Examining socio-environmental factors: A thorough assessment should consider the various stressors, triggers, and social influences that may have played a role in developing and perpetuating the person’s substance use disorder.
  • Exploring the causes of addiction: Understanding the root causes of a person’s addiction can help professionals develop targeted interventions that address the symptoms of the problem and the underlying issues driving their drug use.


In addiction recovery, having a compassionate, knowledgeable, and experienced professional guiding the diagnostic process can make all the difference in a person’s ability to regain control over their life. 

By providing a safe and supportive environment for individuals to share their experiences and struggles, treatment professionals can foster a sense of belonging and encourage individuals to heal.

An accurate diagnosis can begin the journey toward a healthier, drug-free life.

Request For A Treatment Plan

Developing an individualized treatment plan is essential in addressing each person’s unique needs and challenges as they embark on their journey towards a healthier, substance-free life. 

Such a plan considers the specific substances involved, the severity of the addiction, the presence of any co-occurring mental health disorders, and the individual’s circumstances and preferences.

A comprehensive treatment plan may include a combination of medical, behavioral, and social support interventions, such as detoxification, medication-assisted treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy, family therapy, or attendance at 12-step programs. 

By tailoring the plan to the individual’s situation and providing appropriate resources and support, treatment providers can help individuals build a strong foundation for addiction recovery and achieve lasting change.

A crucial aspect of any treatment plan is establishing a supportive network, as addiction recovery often requires ongoing care and encouragement from friends, family, and dedicated professionals. 

Peer support groups, such as 12-step programs, can offer invaluable guidance and camaraderie for those in recovery, helping them to develop new coping strategies, maintain motivation, and navigate the challenges of post-acute withdrawal.

Furthermore, involving loved ones in the treatment process can foster a sense of belonging and understanding, enhancing the individual’s resilience and determination to overcome their addiction. 

Whether seeking to stop smoking, reduce alcohol consumption, or abstain from drugs entirely, a carefully crafted, multifaceted treatment plan can provide the necessary tools and support for individuals to reclaim control over their lives and achieve lasting recovery.


Effective treatment strategies for substance use disorders encompass a multifaceted approach, addressing an individual’s physical, psychological, and social aspects, fostering a transformative journey towards a healthier and more fulfilling existence.

Addiction recovery requires a thorough understanding of the complex interplay between the brain’s reward system and the individual’s response to drug use. 

By targeting these intricate connections, treatments can be tailored to each person’s unique needs, ultimately helping them regain control over their lives and break free from the cycle of addiction.

One critical component of addiction recovery is the stage-appropriate application of evidence-based treatments. In the early stages of recovery, individuals often struggle with withdrawal symptoms and cravings, which may be alleviated through medications or other therapeutic interventions.

As people progress in their recovery journey, behavioral therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing, can help them develop coping skills and strategies to identify and avoid triggers and address underlying emotional and psychological issues that may have contributed to their substance use.

Additionally, integrating family therapy and adolescent substance use interventions can provide essential support for younger individuals and their families, helping to foster a nurturing and understanding environment conducive to recovery.

Social support plays a crucial role in the addiction recovery process, as it fosters a sense of belonging and connection, which can be essential in helping individuals maintain long-term recovery. 

Twelve-step programs and peer-led support groups provide individuals with a community of like-minded people sharing similar experiences and challenges, encouraging them to remain engaged in their treatment and recovery journey.

Furthermore, by addressing occupational and legal needs, comprehensive treatment plans can help people reintegrate into society, rebuild their lives, and restore their dignity and self-worth.

Addiction recovery is a lifelong journey; it is vital to recognize that relapse may occur, as with other chronic illnesses. 

However, this should be seen as a success rather than as an opportunity to re-evaluate and adjust the treatment plan, ensuring that it continues to meet the individual’s evolving needs.

By adopting a compassionate, knowledgeable, and experienced approach to treatment, individuals can be empowered to overcome the challenges of addiction and embrace a healthier, more fulfilling life.


Incorporating evidence-based procedures in the treatment of substance use disorders is paramount for addressing the multifaceted needs of individuals and facilitating their journey towards a healthier, more fulfilling life.

One such approach is the 12-step program, widely adopted by support groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. 

These programs provide a structured, step-by-step path to recovery that fosters peer support, personal growth, and acceptance of responsibility for one’s actions. 

The twelve steps serve as a foundation for individuals to build upon and customize their recovery journey, ensuring they are equipped with the necessary tools to overcome addiction and maintain long-term sobriety.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is another evidence-based procedure proven effective in treating substance use disorders. 

CBT focuses on identifying and changing maladaptive thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors associated with substance use. 

Through this therapeutic approach, individuals learn to recognize triggers and develop coping strategies to prevent relapse. 

CBT empowers individuals to take control of their recovery and achieve lasting change by addressing the underlying psychological processes contributing to addiction.

In addition to the twelve steps and CBT, contingency management (CM) is another evidence-based intervention that has shown positive outcomes in treating substance use disorders. 

CM is based on the principles of operant conditioning, rewarding individuals for maintaining abstinence and adhering to treatment goals. 

CM reinforces positive behaviors by providing tangible incentives and motivates individuals to remain committed to their recovery journey. 

This approach has been particularly effective in treating individuals with opioid and stimulant use disorders, as it fosters a sense of accomplishment and self-efficacy in maintaining abstinence.

A comprehensive treatment plan that encompasses various evidence-based procedures, such as the twelve steps, CBT, and CM, can significantly improve the likelihood of successful recovery from substance use disorders. 

Each approach offers unique benefits and addresses different aspects of addiction, allowing individuals to develop a holistic and personalized recovery plan. 

By incorporating these evidence-based procedures, treatment providers can better support individuals in overcoming the complex challenges of addiction and achieving a healthier, more fulfilling life.

Patient Resources

A wealth of patient resources is available to support individuals undergoing treatment for substance use disorders, providing valuable guidance and assistance throughout their journey toward improved well-being. 

These resources encompass a range of services and tools, including educational materials, support groups, online forums, hotlines, and professional counseling services.

By accessing these resources, patients can better understand their addiction, learn coping strategies, and connect with others who share similar experiences, ultimately fostering a sense of belonging and empowerment in their recovery process.

Support groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA), and SMART Recovery, are widely recognized for their effectiveness in facilitating addiction recovery. 

These groups provide a structured, non-judgmental environment where individuals can share their experiences, learn from others, and receive encouragement in their pursuit of sobriety.

In addition to in-person meetings, many support groups now offer online resources, including virtual meetings, discussion forums, and mobile applications, making it easier for individuals to access support anytime and anywhere.

Educational materials and online resources also play a vital role in addiction recovery. By providing evidence-based information on the science of addiction, treatment options, and relapse prevention strategies, these resources help individuals make informed decisions about their treatment and develop the skills necessary to maintain long-term recovery. 

Such resources include the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) website, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) website, and various books and articles on addiction and recovery.

Patient resources for addiction recovery serve to enhance and complement the therapeutic interventions provided by healthcare professionals. 

By leveraging these resources, individuals can gain control over their recovery journey, deepen their understanding of their addiction, and develop a supportive network of peers and professionals. 

Ultimately, the availability and utilization of these resources contribute to a more comprehensive and practical approach to treating substance use disorders and improving the overall quality of life for those affected by addiction.

Frequently Asked Questions About Addiction Recovery

Common misconceptions about addiction recovery often stem from a lack of understanding of the complex nature of addiction itself.

One widely held misconception is that addiction recovery is simply a matter of willpower and those who struggle to maintain sobriety are weak or morally flawed.

However, research has demonstrated that addiction is a chronic brain disorder, with biological, psychological, and social factors contributing to its development and maintenance.

Another misconception is that a relapse signifies treatment failure when in reality, relapse rates for addiction are similar to those of other chronic illnesses, such as hypertension and asthma.

Relapse may indicate the need for adjustments or changes in the treatment plan.

Furthermore, some may believe that a single, standardized treatment approach is sufficient for all individuals. In contrast, effective treatment must be tailored to address each person’s unique drug use patterns and related issues.

By dispelling these misconceptions, society can foster a more compassionate and informed understanding of addiction recovery, leading to better support systems and improved treatment outcomes.

Supporting a loved one during their addiction recovery process is crucial, as it can significantly impact the success of their journey towards a healthier, substance-free life. 

Friends and family members can contribute positively by creating an environment of understanding, empathy, and encouragement.

This includes actively listening to the individual’s experiences and concerns, providing a safe space for open communication, and assisting in identifying and accessing appropriate resources or treatment options. 

Furthermore, it is essential to educate oneself about the nature of addiction, recovery, and potential triggers to comprehend the challenges the loved one faces better.

By fostering a sense of belonging and inclusivity, friends and family members play a vital role in reinforcing the recovering individual’s motivation, resilience, and commitment to a life of sobriety.

During addiction recovery, individuals may face various barriers or challenges that can hinder their progress toward a healthy, drug-free life.

These obstacles can include physical withdrawal symptoms, psychological factors such as stress and cravings, lack of social support, limited access to effective treatment options, and potential stigma associated with seeking help.

Additionally, relapse may occur as part of the recovery journey, highlighting the need for ongoing support and the adaptability of treatment plans.

Addressing and overcoming these challenges is crucial to ensuring a successful and sustainable recovery process, ultimately allowing individuals to regain control over their lives and reintegrate into society.

Physical exercise and a healthy diet play a crucial role in addiction recovery by promoting overall physical and mental well-being.

Regular physical activity has been shown to release endorphins, which can elevate mood, reduce stress, and alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression, factors that may contribute to substance use disorders.

Additionally, a nutritious diet can help restore essential nutrients, support a healthy immune system, and improve cognitive functioning, thereby enhancing one’s ability to cope with the challenges associated with addiction recovery.

By incorporating exercise and healthy eating habits into their daily routines, individuals in recovery can experience many benefits that support long-term sobriety and overall well-being.

Maintaining long-term sobriety and preventing relapse after completing an addiction recovery program requires a comprehensive approach that addresses various aspects of an individual’s life. Essential strategies include:

  • Developing a solid support network
  • Engaging in regular physical exercise and maintaining a healthy diet
  • Participating in ongoing therapy or counseling
  • Adopting effective stress management techniques

Additionally, individuals should be mindful of potential triggers and develop coping skills to manage cravings and high-risk situations. 

By incorporating these strategies and maintaining a commitment to personal growth and self-care, individuals can successfully navigate the challenges of long-term sobriety and minimize the risk of relapse.